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It is uncertain if Khufu was actually the biological son of Sneferu. It contained many precious grave goods, and several inscriptions give her the title Mut-nesut meaning "mother of a king" , together with the name of king Sneferu.
The following list presents family members, which can be assigned to Khufu with certainty. It is still unclear how long Khufu ruled over Egypt, because historically later documents contradict each other and contemporary sources are scarce.
The Royal Canon of Turin from the 19th dynasty however, gives 23 years of rulership for Khufu. These figures are now considered an exaggeration or a misinterpretation of antiquated sources.
One of them was found at the Dakhla Oasis in the Libyan Desert. Several papyrus fragments contain handwritten reports from a royal harbour at modern-day Wadi al-Jarf.
The inscriptions describe the arrival of royal boats with precious ore and turquoise in the "year after the 13th cattle count under Hor-Medjedw".
The cattle count as an economic event served the tax collection in the whole of Egypt. Newer evaluation of contemporary documents and the Palermo stone inscription strengthen the theory that the cattle count under Khufu was still performed biennially, not annually, as thought earlier.
Egyptologists such as Thomas Schneider, Michael Haase, and Rainer Stadelmann wonder if the compiler of the Turin Canon actually took into account that the cattle count was performed biennially during the first half of the Old Kingdom period, whilst tax collection during the 19th dynasty was held every year.
In sum, all these documents would prove that Khufu ruled for at least 26 or 27 years, and possibly for over 34 years, if the inscription in the relieving chambers points to a biennial cattle count.
Indeed, if the compiler of the Turin Canon did not take into account a biennial cattle count, it could even mean that Khufu ruled for 46 years.
Within Egypt, Khufu is documented in several building inscriptions and statues. At Saqqara two terracotta figures of the goddess Bastet were found, on which, at their bases, the horus name of Khufu is incised.
At the Wadi Maghareh in Sinai a rock inscription depicts Khufu with the double crown. Khufu sent several expeditions in an attempt to find turquoise and copper mines.
Like other kings, such as Sekhemkhet , Sneferu and Sahure , which are also depicted in impressive reliefs there, he was looking for those two precious materials.
He sent several expeditions to Byblos in an attempt to trade copper tools and weapons for precious Lebanese Cedar wood.
This kind of wood was essential for building large and stable funerary boats and indeed the boats discovered at the Great Pyramid were made of it.
First traces of such a harbour were already excavated in by John Gardner Wilkinson and James Burton , but the site was quickly abandoned and then forgotten in time.
Among other material, a collection of hundreds of papyrus fragments were found. Ten of these papyri are very well preserved. The dating of these important documents is secured by phrases typical for the Old Kingdom period, as well as the fact that the letters are addressed to the king himself, using his Horus name.
This was typical when an addressed king was still alive; when the ruler was already dead he was addressed by his cartouche name or birth name.
One document is of special interest: Using the diary, researchers were able to reconstruct three months of his life, providing new insight into the everyday lives of people of the Fourth Dynasty.
These papyri are the earliest examples of imprinted papyri ever found in Egypt. Another inscription, found on the limestone walls of the harbor, mentions the head of the royal scribes controlling the exchange of goods: The harbor was of strategic and economic importance to Khufu because ships brought precious materials, such as turquoise, copper and ore from the southern tip of the Sinai peninsula.
The papyri fragments show several storage lists naming the delivered goods. The papyri also mention a certain harbour at the opposite coast of Wadi al-Jarf, on the western shore of the Sinai Peninsula, where the ancient fortress Tell Ras Budran was excavated in by Gregory Mumford.
The papyri and the fortress together reveal an explicit sailing route across the Red Sea for the very first time in history.
It is the oldest archaeologically detected sailing route of Ancient Egypt. According to Tallet, the harbor could also have been one of the legendary high sea harbours of Ancient Egypt, from where expeditions to the infamous gold land Punt had started.
The only three-dimensional depiction of Khufu that has survived time nearly completely is a small and well restored ivory figurine known as Khufu Statuette.
It shows the king with the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. Khufu holds a flail in his left hand and his right hand rests together with his lower arm on his right upper leg.
The figurine was found headless; according to Petrie, it was caused by an accident while digging. When Petrie recognized the importance of the find, he stopped all other work and offered a reward to any workman who could find the head.
Three weeks later the head was found after intense sifting in a deeper level of the room rubble. He argues that no building that clearly dates to the Fourth Dynasty was ever excavated at Kom el-Sultan or Abydos.
Furthermore, he points out that the face of Khufu is unusually squat and chubby and shows no emotional expression. Hawass compared the facial stylistics with statues of contemporary kings, such as Sneferu, Khaefra and Menkaura.
The faces of these three kings are of even beauty, slender and with a kindly expression — the clear result of idealistic motivations; they are not based on reality.
The appearance of Khufu on the ivory statue instead looks like the artist did not care very much about professionalism or diligence.
He believes Khufu himself would never have allowed the display of such a comparatively sloppy work. And finally, Hawass also argues that the sort of throne the figurine sits on does not match the artistic styles of any Old Kingdom artifact.
Old Kingdom thrones had a backrest that reached up to the neck of the king. Depictions of a king with such a flail as a ceremonial insignia appear no earlier than the Middle Kingdom.
Zahi Hawass therefore concludes that the figurine was possibly made as an amulet or lucky charm to sell to pious citizens. It is often said that the small figurine is the only preserved statue of Khufu.
This is not quite correct. Excavations at Saqqara in and revealed a pair of terracotta statues depicting a lion goddess possibly Bastet or Sakhmet.
On her feet two figures of childlike kings are preserved. While the right figurine can be identified as king Khufu by his Horus name, the left one depicts king Pepy I of 6th dynasty , called by his birth name.
The figurines of Pepy were added to the statue groups in later times, because they were placed separately and at a distance from the deity.
This is inconsistent with a typical statue group of the Old Kingdom — normally all statue groups were built as an artistic unit. The two statue groups are similar to each other in size and scale but differ in that one lion goddess holds a scepter.
The excavators point out that the statues were restored during the Middle Kingdom, after they were broken apart. However, it seems that the reason for the restoration lay more in an interest in the goddess, than in a royal cult around the king figures: The Palermo Stone reports on its fragment C-2 the creation of two oversize standing statues for the king; one is said to have been made of copper, the other of pure gold.
Today, the complete or partially preserved cartouches with the name Khufu or Khnum-Khuf remain. One of the fragments, that of a small seated statue, shows the legs and feet of a sitting king from the knuckles downward.
To the right of them the name Two further objects are on display at the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim. These are also made of alabaster.
One of them shows the head of a cat goddess most probably Bastet or Sakhmet. The position of her right arm suggests that the bust once belonged to a statue group similar to the well known triad of Mycerinus.
Several statue heads might have belonged to Khufu. Because of its chubby cheeks the head is assigned to Khufu as well as to king Huni. Khufu is depicted in several relief fragments found scattered in his necropolis and elsewhere.
All reliefs were made of finely polished limestone. Some of them originate from the ruined pyramid temple and the destroyed causeway, where they once covered the walls completely.
Others were found re-used in the pyramid necropolis of king Amenemhet I at Lisht and at Tanis and Bubastis. Another one shows a row of fat oxen decorated with flowers — they were obviously prepared as sacrifices during an offering procession.
The guiding inscription calls them "the surroundings of Tefef serve Khufu", "beautiful bulls of Khufu" and "bawling for Khufu". And a fourth example shows the king with the double crown impaling a hippopotamus.
The work-off of the relief is similar to that of king Snefru. In one scene king Khufu wears the double-crown; nearby, the depiction of the god Thoth is visible.
In another scene, close by, Khufu wears the Atef -crown while smiting an enemy. In this scene the god Wepwawet is present. None of the numerous relief fragments shows king Khufu offering to a god.
This is remarkable, since reliefs of Sneferu and those of all kings from Menkaura onward show the king offering to a deity.
It is possible that the lack of this special depiction influenced later ancient Greek historians in their assumptions that Khufu could have actually closed all temples and prohibited any sacrifice.
The pyramid necropolis of Khufu was erected in the northeastern section of the plateau of Giza. It is possible that the lack of building space, the lack of local limestone quarries and the loosened ground at Dahshur forced Khufu to move north, away from the necropolis of his predecessor Sneferu.
Khufu chose the high end of a natural plateau so that his future pyramid would be widely visible. Khufu decided to call his necropolis Akhet-Khufu meaning "horizon of Khufu".
The Great Pyramid has a base measurement of ca. The lack of the casing allows a full view of the inner core of the pyramid.
It was erected in small steps by more or less roughly hewn blocks of dark limestone. The casing was made of nearly white limestone. John Romer suggests that they used the same method that had been used for earlier and later constructions, laying out parts of the plan on the ground at a 1-to-1 scale.
He writes that "such a working diagram would also serve to generate the architecture of the pyramid with precision unmatched by any other means".
Without the use of pulleys, wheels, or iron tools, they used critical path analysis methods, which suggest that the Great Pyramid was completed from start to finish in approximately 10 years.
From this original entrance, there is a Descending Passage 0. There is a continuation of the horizontal passage in the south wall of the lower chamber; there is also a pit dug in the floor of the chamber.
Some Egyptologists suggest that this Lower Chamber was intended to be the original burial chamber, but Pharaoh Khufu later changed his mind and wanted it to be higher up in the pyramid.
Originally concealed with a slab of stone, this is the beginning of the Ascending Passage. The Ascending Passage is The lower end of the Ascending Passage is closed by three huge blocks of granite, each about 1.
At the start of the Grand Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole cut in the wall. This is the start of a vertical shaft which follows an irregular path through the masonry of the pyramid to join the Descending Passage.
The passage is 1. At the eastern end of the chamber there is a niche 4. The original depth of the niche was 1. At the end of one of his shafts, Dixon discovered a ball of black diorite a type of rock and a bronze implement of unknown purpose.
Both objects are currently in the British Museum. Some years later the National Geographic Society created a similar robot which, in September , drilled a small hole in the southern door, only to find another door behind it.
Research continued in with the Djedi Project. With this they were able to penetrate the first door of the southern shaft through the hole drilled in , and view all the sides of the small chamber behind it.
They discovered hieroglyphs written in red paint. They were also able to scrutinize the inside of the two copper "handles" embedded in the door, and they now believe them to be for decorative purposes.
They also found the reverse side of the "door" to be finished and polished, which suggests that it was not put there just to block the shaft from debris, but rather for a more specific reason.
The Grand Gallery continues the slope of the Ascending Passage, but is 8. At the base it is 2. There are seven of these steps, so, at the top, the Grand Gallery is only 1.
It is roofed by slabs of stone laid at a slightly steeper angle than the floor of the gallery, so that each stone fits into a slot cut in the top of the gallery like the teeth of a ratchet.
The purpose was to have each block supported by the wall of the Gallery, rather than resting on the block beneath it, in order to prevent cumulative pressure.
At the upper end of the Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole near the roof that opens into a short tunnel by which access can be gained to the lowest of the Relieving Chambers.
Perring , who dug tunnels upwards using blasting powder. In the shelves there are 54 slots, 27 on each side matched by vertical and horizontal slots in the walls of the Gallery.
These form a cross shape that rises out of the slot in the shelf. The purpose of these slots is not known, but the central gutter in the floor of the Gallery, which is the same width as the Ascending Passage, has led to speculation that the blocking stones were stored in the Grand Gallery and the slots held wooden beams to restrain them from sliding down the passage.
At the top of the Grand Gallery, there is a step giving onto a horizontal passage some metres long and approximately 1.
Fragments of granite found by Petrie in the Descending Passage may have come from these now-vanished doors. In , scientists from the ScanPyramids project discovered a large cavity above the Grand Gallery using muon radiography , which they called the "ScanPyramids Big Void".
Its existence was confirmed by independent detection with three different technologies: It has a flat roof 11 cubits and 5 digits or 5.
The purpose of these shafts is not clear: Above the roof, which is formed of nine slabs of stone weighing in total about tons, are five compartments known as Relieving Chambers.
Vyse suspected the presence of upper chambers when he found that he could push a long reed through a crack in the ceiling of the first chamber.
The sarcophagus is slightly larger than the Ascending Passage, which indicates that it must have been placed in the Chamber before the roof was put in place.
Unlike the fine masonry of the walls of the Chamber, the sarcophagus is roughly finished, with saw-marks visible in several places.
This is in contrast with the finely finished and decorated sarcophagi found in other pyramids of the same period.
Petrie suggested that such a sarcophagus was intended but was lost in the river on the way north from Aswan and a hurriedly made replacement was used instead.
It is believed that their efforts dislodged the stone fitted in the ceiling of the Descending Passage to hide the entrance to the Ascending Passage and it was the noise of that stone falling and then sliding down the Descending Passage, which alerted them to the need to turn left.
Unable to remove these stones, however, the workmen tunnelled up beside them through the softer limestone of the Pyramid until they reached the Ascending Passage.
It is possible to enter the Descending Passage from this point, but access is usually forbidden. The Great Pyramid is surrounded by a complex of several buildings including small pyramids.
The Pyramid Temple, which stood on the east side of the pyramid and measured There are only a few remnants of the causeway which linked the pyramid with the valley and the Valley Temple.
The Valley Temple is buried beneath the village of Nazlet el-Samman; basalt paving and limestone walls have been found but the site has not been excavated.
He theorizes that such a saw could have been attached to a wooden trestle and possibly used in conjunction with vegetable oil, cutting sand, emery or pounded quartz to cut the blocks, which would have required the labour of at least a dozen men to operate it.
Three remain standing to nearly full height but the fourth was so ruined that its existence was not suspected until the recent discovery of the first course of stones and the remains of the capstone.
Hidden beneath the paving around the pyramid was the tomb of Queen Hetepheres I , sister-wife of Sneferu and mother of Khufu.
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